The mathematics, the calculation, and practical conclusions are not affected by this binary choice, and in fact it reflects our disposition towards the world, not the other way around. The “All Random” view is the arrogant one. When we fail to see cause, it is impossible that a cause exists, and hence the truly random phenomenon is cause-less. It is the primitive, axiomatic behavior of the universe we are part of. The “Nothing is Random” view is the humble one: randomness reflects our measure of ignorance with respect to the cause of the random phenomenon. Existence of such an unreachable cause is consistent with the basic premise of religion, which gives satisfaction to religious scientists, while this very notion destroys the premise of anti-religion scientists who can’t accept a source of power and wisdom higher than ourselves.
But it seems that our great strides in developing randomness mathematics, and using its power for practical purposes, are not affected really by this philosophical debate, so let’s leave it for after hours.